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What Is Object Oriented Programming?

What Is Object Oriented Programming?

Object-Oriented Programming- It is also commonly abbreviated as OOP. Object-oriented programming is an approach to the computer programming that is based on the concept of object and the class. The U programming paradigm was developed in order to overcome the limitations of the procedural programming. Most students begin their programming journey with a conventional procedural programming language such as C programming language.

However, the procedural programming had some major limitations in conventional procedural programming. It was difficult to develop a large and complex software. The U program organization allows the programmer to protect the key data elements. In OOP programming the data can be protected by restricting its access to only methods that belong to the object.

The U programming approach views the program components in the form of objects. Each object defined in the program can have its own data and the methods that can operate on the data. This is just an introduction to object-oriented programming & we are going to discuss each of these topics in detail in this article.

What is object-oriented programming? Important fundamental OOP concepts such as the concept of a class & the objects.

We will also discuss in detail the four important fundamental OOP program design principles such as encapsulation inheritance abstraction and polymorphism.

Understanding the need that led to the development of OOP programming paradigm.

The conventional procedural programming approach had some important limitations in conventional procedural programming. It was difficult to adequately secure the program data from the inadvertent changes in procedural programming. The typical procedural program structure consists of program data in the form of variables and the functions that operates on the data.

The program data in the procedural programming is generally global. Since most data is global the data can be operated upon by any function and therefore it was difficult to protect the data from such inadvertent changes. The unrestricted access to the program data in procedural paradigm makes it venerable because the data can be easily modified by any function.

Such change in the global data can adversely affect the functionality of other functions that also share the same data. However, the object-oriented programming approach provided the much-needed solution to the limitations of the procedural programming in the OOP programming approach. It is much easier to control the data access and the data is adequately protected in OOP.

It is also much easier to model the real-world objects represented as objects in the program code. So far we have discussed the need for OOP paradigm.

What is object-oriented programming?

The object-oriented programming is an approach to the software application development that is based on the fundamental concept of class and object. In OOP methodology all the program components are represented as objects into the program code. The objects are defined as class in the program code.

The object-oriented Programming refers to a type of computer programming in which the programmer define not only the data type of a data structure but also the types of operations represented by methods that can be applied to the data structure. In this way the data structure becomes an object that includes both data and the methods.

In addition, programmers can also create relationships between the two or more objects. For example, objects can inherit characteristics from other objects in terms of data and inherited methods. This is referred as inheritance in OOP terminology.

Let me explain this with one simple example.
Let us consider an example of a software application for a Bank in this banking software application. The list of entities that needs to be represented as an object include the Bank account holder that is a Bank customer. Further Bank accepts fixed deposits as a liability product.

Similarly, the Bank offers different types of loans to the Bank customer as an asset product and therefore customer, bank account, deposits, loans, or examples of the entities represented as objects in the banking software, and each of these object is represented by a corresponding class in the program code.

In OOP program we combine the group of variables related to the object and the methods that operate on the data as a single unit. In other words, an object is the smallest component in the OOP program. Each object has some state defined by its properties and the object behavior is defined by its methods. All right so now you have learned what is object-oriented programming and how this approach is different as compared to procedural programming.

Understand the concept of an object in detail

The U paradigm views the program components as objects. An object is a real-world entity that needs to be represented into the software application. The concept of object is simple. For example, the world around us is full of various objects such as pen, lamp, house, car, cat, dog are all examples of object. However, for software application development point of view, an object could be either a living entity or a physical object or even a business concept.

For example, a Bank account is a valid business concept that is represented as object. In the banking software application. Each object has a unique identity a specific behavior and a state. The state of an object is defined by its member variables whereas the object behavior is defined by its member methods. It is important to note that the objects are runtime entities created during the program execution.

To create an object the resources are required. In terms of memory allocation, the programmer has to first define the object in the form of a class. A class works as a template or a blueprint for the object.

For example, we can create as many student objects from the student class defined in the program code. An object is also defined as an instance of the class. The process of creating an object from the class is called as instantiating a class.

What is a class in object-oriented programming?

A class simply describes an object. A class is defined as a blueprint or template for creating an object. A class can also be alternately referred to as a template that describes an object. A class is a mechanism in the OOP that binds the variables and methods together related to an object.

Let us consider one simple example to understand the concept of a class.
In this example, we will discuss a software application for a College. In this software application for a College, the list of entities that needs to be represented as an object include first the student second the teacher, and the third entity is examination.

The actual software will have many entities but in this example just for the sake of simplicity, we are discussing only three entities. In this example, we need to first define the three classes in the program code in order to represent the student object the teacher object, and the examination object. In each of these class, we can declare corresponding variables and methods that belong to each object.

For example, the student class variables include first name, last name and the Social Security number.

Similarly, the methods for student class include read books, give exams, and other methods. The programmer can define the visibility of the class variables and methods by using access specifier. The public variables and methods can be accessed from anywhere in the program code. In OOP methodology the program code is organized in the form of set of classes. The class defines the object in the program code.

Each and every class represents a real-world entity. In other words, an object needs to be represented in the program code as a class. Another simple analogy could be an architectural drawing. For example, in order to construct a house, an architectural drawing is required as a blueprint.

The architectural blueprint defines the dimensions and the specifications for the house to be constructed. In this example, we can consider architectural blueprint as a class and the actual building as an object. The U programming methodology clearly defines the data ownership, in terms of classes, each class binds together the data and methods that operates on the data.

Let us consider one example of a class declaration in java. The class is declared by using a java keyword class. In this example, we have declared a class with method demo as a class name. in this class, we have also declared a method called find max as method name. So now we are clear about the concept of class and object.

Fundamental principles that govern the object-oriented programming program organization.
The U program organization is based upon 4 major fundamental principles.

These OOP principles include:
  • Encapsulation
  • OP principle as inheritance
  • OOP principle as polymorphism
  • Abstraction

All right, let us now summarize the object-oriented programming paradigm. The U programming approach views the program components in the form of objects. The objects are defined in the program code as a class. Each object has a corresponding class. Some of the most popular and commonly used object-oriented programming languages include Java, C++, Python, PHP, Swift, Kotlin and there are many more OOP languages.

That brings us to the end of this article. In this article, we have discussed in detail what is object-oriented programming. We have also covered in detail some important fundamental OOP concepts such as an object and a class. I hope this article was helpful for you. if then give it a share and also comment below.

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